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7. Personnel expenses

Cost of sales, selling, general and administrative expenses and research and development expenses included personnel expenses of €5,555 million and €5,354 million in 2011 and 2010, respectively.

Personnel expenses comprised the following:

€ in millions 2011 2010
Wages and salaries 4,392 4,221
Social security contributions, cost of retirement pensions and social assistance 1,163 1,133
thereof retirement pensions 144 132
Personnel expenses 5,555 5,354

€ in millions 2011 2010
Wages and salaries 4,392 4,221
Social security contributions, cost of retirement pensions and social assistance 1,163 1,133
thereof retirement pensions 144 132
Personnel expenses 5,555 5,354

Fresenius Group’s annual average number of employees by function is shown below:

  2011 2010
Production 26,240 23,710
Service 89,341 84,097
Administration 17,924 17,095
Sales and marketing 8,170 7,816
Research and development 1,513 1,445
Total employees (per capita) 143,188 134,163

  2011 2010
Production 26,240 23,710
Service 89,341 84,097
Administration 17,924 17,095
Sales and marketing 8,170 7,816
Research and development 1,513 1,445
Total employees (per capita) 143,188 134,163

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